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- Biology : The science of life — of complex, self-organizing, information-processing systems living in the past, present or future.
- Genetics : The study of the inheritance of characteristics, genes and DNA.
- Lactose intolerance : Due to a decrease of the lactase enzyme in cells lining the small intestine of adults and a concomitant inability to break down or metabolize lactose.
- Allele : A specific sequence of a gene, and one of a pair in a diploid cell (one per chromosome).
- DNA : A macromolecule — chemically, a nucleic acid — that stores genetic information.
- Dihybrid cross : A cross in genetics between two individuals identically heterozygous at two loci, for example, AaBb x AaBb.
- Gene : The functional unit of heredity.
- Genotype : Genetic makeup, as distinguished from the physical appearance, of an organism or a group of organisms, based on a combination of alleles located on homologous chromosomes that determines a specific characteristic or trait.
- Mutation : Changes to the DNA sequence that cause new genetic variation.
- Natural selection : The differential survival and/or reproduction of classes of entities that differ in one or more characteristics
- Plant breeding : The purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes, such as food production, forestry, and horticulture.
- RNA interference : Process that inhibits the flow of genetic information to protein synthesis.
- Race (biology) : Inbreeding group marked by a pre-determined profile of latent factors of hereditary traits.