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Pennsylvania is a state on the eastern coast of the United States of America. Pennsylvania is bordered on the west by Ohio and the West Virginia panhandle; on the north by Lake Erie and New York; on the east by New York and New Jersey; and on the south by Delaware, Maryland, and West Virginia. Pennsylvania has an international border in its northwest corner, bordering Ontario in Lake Erie. Pennsylvania does not have direct ocean coastline, though it has ocean access in its southeast corner via the Delaware River.

Pennsylvania ratified the U.S. Constitution on 12 December 1787, the second state to do so.




  • Miller, Randall M. and William A. Pencak, eds. Pennsylvania: A History of the Commonwealth (2002), detailed scholarly history
  • Beers, Paul B. Pennsylvania Politics Today and Yesterday (1980), government textbook
  • Klein, Philip S and Ari Hoogenboom. A History of Pennsylvania (1973).
  • Weigley, Russell. Philadelphia: A 300-Year History (1982)
  • WPA Federal Writers' Project. Pennsylvania: A Guide to the Keystone State, 1940.

See also