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In medicine, a pheochromocytoma is "a usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine, is hypertension, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be headache; sweating, palpitation, apprehension, tremor; pallor or flushing of the face, nausea and vomiting, pain in the chest and abdomen, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear.'[1][2]


Measuring plasma or urinary fractionated metanephrines may be the best approach.[2]


  1. Anonymous (2023), Pheochromocytoma (English). Medical Subject Headings. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Pacak K, Eisenhofer G, Ahlman H, Bornstein SR, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Grossman AB et al. (2007). "Pheochromocytoma: recommendations for clinical practice from the First International Symposium. October 2005.". Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab 3 (2): 92-102. DOI:10.1038/ncpendmet0396. PMID 17237836. Research Blogging.