As defined by the National Osteoporosis Foundation:
Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease characterized by low bone mass and [microarchitectural] structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures, especially of the hip, spine and wrist, although any bone can be affected.
The increase in fragility results from both low bone mass and impaired bone quality.
Emphasizing the factor of ‘bone strength’, a factor in addition to and distinct from low bone mass, and the consequent increase risk of sustaining a fracture, a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy has defined osteoporosis in 2001 as
a skeletal disease characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing a person to an increased risk of fracture. Bone strength primarily reflects the integration of bone density and bone quality...
Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (osteoporosis, postmenopausal) and age-related or senile osteoporosis."
|Osteoporosis, which literally means "porous bone", is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced. As the bones become more porous and fragile, the risk of fracture is greatly increased. The loss of bone occurs "silently" and progressively. Often there are no symptoms until the first fracture occurs.|
|Osteoporosis means “porous bone.” If you look at healthy bone under a microscope, you will see that parts of it look like a honeycomb. If you have osteoporosis, the holes and spaces in the honeycomb are much bigger than they are in healthy bone. This means your bones have lost density or mass. It also means that the structure of your bone tissues has become abnormal. As your bones become less dense, they become weaker.|
Although more common in women, osteoporosis may occur in males.
Pathogenesis of osteoporosis
Current concepts of osteoporosis pathogenesis contend that numerous mechanistic factors concentrate on bone in causing reduction of the mass of bone, and architectural—microarchitectural—degeneration of the structure of bone, resulting in a weakening of bone strength that increases the risk of fracture from physical trauma that might otherwise not fracture the bone.
Osteoporosis is a disorder in which loss of bone strength leads to fragility fractures...the fundamental pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disorder...include:
(a) failure to achieve a skeleton of optimal strength during growth and development;
(b) excessive bone resorption resulting in loss of bone mass and disruption of architecture; and,
(c) failure to replace lost [resorbed] bone due to defects in bone formation.
Estrogen deficiency is known to play a critical role in the development of osteoporosis, while calcium and vitamin D deficiencies and secondary hyperparathyroidism also contribute. There are multiple mechanisms underlying the regulation of bone remodeling, and these involve not only the osteoblastic and osteoclastic cell lineages but also other marrow cells, in addition to the interaction of systemic hormones, local cytokines, growth factors, and transcription factors. Polymorphisms of a large number of genes have been associated with differences in bone mass and fragility.<
Subclinical hypercortisolism may underlie about 5% of cases of osteoporosis. These patients can be identified by serum cortisol levels greater than 50.0 nmol/L after a 1-mg overnight dexamethasone test.
Glucocorticoid drugs can cause osteoporosis.
Diagnosis is made be bone densitometry, or by the presence of fragility fractures. However, high-trauma fractures also are associated with osteoporosis.
History and physical examination
- weight less than 51 kg
- tooth count less than 20
- rib-pelvis distance less than 2 finger breadths
- wall-occiput distance greater than 0 cm
- self-reported humped back
For men, the "MORES" clinical prediction rule uses age, weight, and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to predict risk of a fracture with a number needed to screen of 279 to prevent one fracture:
Densitometry using photon absorptiometry is scored by two measures, the T-score and the Z-score. Scores indicate the amount one's bone mineral density varies from the mean. Negative scores indicate lower bone density, and positive scores indicate higher.
- Osteoporosis is defined as -2.5 or lower, meaning a bone density that is two and a half standard deviations below the mean of a thirty year old woman.
- Osteopenia is defined as less than -1.0 and greater than -2.5
- Normal is a T-score of -1.0 or higher
Screening patients for hypercortisolism with a 2-day, low-dose dexamethasone suppression test ( 0.5 mg of dexamethasone by mouth every 6 hours followed by measurement of serum cortisol at 9:00 a.m. 2 days after the first dose), may identify hypercortisolism in 10% of patients who have both T-scores of –2.5 or less and vertebral fractures.
- women aged 65 years or older
Interval for repeating screening is uncertain.
Tools for assessing risk include:
- 65 years of age or older
- "Women in the menopausal transition if there is a specific risk factor associated with increased fracture risk such as low body weight, prior low-trauma fracture or high risk medication"
- Fracture after age 50
- "A condition (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) or taking a medication (e.g., glucocorticoids in a daily dose ≥ 5 mg prednisone or equivalent for ≥ three months) associated with low bone mass or bone loss"
- Low body weight
|Outcome||Sensitivity||Specificity||For 5% prevalence of osteoporosis |
as reported by WHI
|Positive predictive value||Negative predictive value|
|QFracture QFracture ...||...||...||...||...|
|Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Hip Fracture Risk Calculator > 1% estimated risk of fracture (≥ 18 points)||• T-score < –2.5 SD by photon absorptiometry
• Fracture (using ≥ 21 points)
|Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST) < 2||• T-score < –2.5 SD by photon absorptiometry at femoral neck or lumbar spine||69%||59%||8%||2.7%|
|Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) ≥ 9||• T-score < –2.5 SD by photon absorptiometry at femoral neck or lumbar spine||64%||59%||8%||3.1%|
|• T-score < –2.5 SD by photon absorptiometry at femoral neck||98%||28%||7%||0.4%|
|Body weight < 70 kg||• T-score < –2.5 SD by photon absorptiometry at femoral neck||87%||48%||8%||1.4%|
Clinical prediction rules are available to guide selection of women for screening. The Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST) may be the most sensitive strategy for detecting abnormal bone density according to a meta-analysis in 2007. More recently, a clinical prediction rule for women developed from the WHI studies (http://hipcalculator.fhcrc.org/) is available to predict risk of a fracture over five years.  Of note, the clinical prediction rule did not study the contribution of physical examination findings.
A cost-benefit analysis concluded that "bone densitometry followed by bisphosphonate therapy for those with osteoporosis may be cost-effective for men aged 65 years or older with a self-reported prior clinical fracture and for men aged 80 to 85 years with no prior fracture."
A clinical practice guideline and systematic review by the American College of Physicians recommends "clinicians obtain DXA [dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry] for men who are at increased risk for osteoporosis and are candidates for drug therapy." However, the College did not define increased risk.
Prevention and treatment
- T-score ≤ -2.5
- Low bone mass (T-score between -1.0 and -2.5) and ≥ 3% 10-year hip fracture probability. This threshold was determined by a cost-benefit analysis.
It is not clear which medications are best for treating osteoporosis.
In monitoring bone mineral density, the least significant change is defined as "defined as a change that is 2.8 times the precision error for each measured site, for each technologist, and it is best expressed as an absolute value (g/cm2)".
Special consideration is needed for patients taking glucocorticoids.
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials concluded "Evidence supports the use of calcium, or calcium in combination with vitamin D supplementation, in the preventive treatment of osteoporosis in people aged 50 years or older. For best therapeutic effect, we recommend minimum doses of 1200 mg of calcium, and 800 IU of vitamin D (for combined calcium plus vitamin D supplementation)."
Treatment may be worthwhile when the 10-year risk of hip fracture or major osteoporotic fracture are ≥3.0 or ≥20 percent, respectively.
Bisophosphonates may be cost-effective when the 10 year risk of fracture is 3% (see osteoporosis#prognosis below). Once yearly, intravenous zoledronic acid reduced second hip fractures in a randomized controlled trial of women after an initial hip fracture. In this trial, 19 patients had to be treated for one hip fracture to be prevented.
The effects of alendronate may continue through 10 years of treatment according to the FLEX randomized controlled trial which included women with T-scores of -1.6 or worse. However, the FLEX trial found increased wrist fractures with long term treatment. This increase may be due to "oversuppressing bone turnover that could, potentially, impair some of the biomechanical properties of bone. High doses of bisphosphonates result in accumulation of microdamage in the bones of dogs, but the relevance of these findings in terms of bone strength and clinical use is unclear."
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Referred to as SERMs, selective estrogen receptor modulators....
Denosumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that inhibits osteoclasts.
As opposed to antiresorptive drugs, anabolic drugs enhance bone formation.
Strontium Ranelate has both anti-resorptive and anabolic mechanisms.
(taken from Table 1 of Johansson)
(calculated from Table 1 of Johansson)
|Positive predictive value||Number with abnormal result needed to treat to prevent one fracture†|
|Bone density < unstated value||56%||79%||6%||47|
|Bone density plus FRAX > 3.7%||56%||84%||8%||33|
|† This is calculated by (100/(PPV*0.35) and assumes biphosphonate reduces fractures by 35% as found in the FIT trial.|
The risk of fracture can be estimated by the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX). This tool was recommended by the WHO Scientific Group on the Assessment of Osteoporosis at Primary Health Care Level during their 2004 meeting. Interpretation of the ability of the FRAX is hindered by their publications not following guidelines for reporting of studies of diagnostic tests as the STARD. In addition, development of the tool may be affected by conflict of interest. Also, the FRAX developers may have changed their calculations within the tool without publishing the changes or their reason.
Repeat density testing
A cohort study suggests the following times to repeat densitometry depending on the following results for initial densitometry:
- Normal (T score, −1.00 or higher)- 15 years
- Mild osteopenia (T score, −1.01 to −1.49) - 15 years
- Moderate osteopenia (T score, −1.50 to −1.99) - 5 years
- Advanced osteopenia (T score, -2.00 to −2.49) - 1 year
National action plan
Washington, DC (May 21, 2009) – The National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) in conjunction with the National Coalition for Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases held a briefing on Capitol Hill today to engage Congress in an action plan for making bone health a national priority and encourage lawmakers to sign on to the “Bone Health Promotion and Research Act.
According to NOF [National Osteoporosis Foundation], osteoporosis, often referred to as a “silent disease,” is increasing in significance as the population of our nation both increases and ages. The World Health Organization, the National Osteoporosis Foundation and the U.S. Surgeon General have officially declared osteoporosis a public health crisis. In fact, osteoporosis and associated fractures are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity.
— In the U.S. today, an estimated 10 million men and women suffer from osteoporosis
— Almost 34 million Americans are estimated to have low bone mass, placing them at increased risk for osteoporosis
— Broken bones due to osteoporosis are more common in women than breast cancer, heart attacks and strokes combined
— The impact of breaking a bone can be significant and often leads to a downward spiral for the patient
— By 2025, the annual direct costs of treating osteoporosis fractures in the US are estimated at $25 billion
- National Osteoporosis Foundation (2005) .
- NIH Consensus Development Panel on Osteoporosis Prevention, Diagnosis, and Therapy. (2001) Osteoporosis prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. JAMA 285(6):785-795. PMID 11176917.
- Ebeling PR (April 2008). "Clinical practice. Osteoporosis in men". N. Engl. J. Med. 358 (14): 1474–82. DOI:10.1056/NEJMcp0707217. PMID 18385499. Research Blogging.
- Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R, Forciea MA, Owens DK et al. (2008). "Pharmacologic treatment of low bone density or osteoporosis to prevent fractures: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians.". Ann Intern Med 149 (6): 404-15. PMID 18794560.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid18794560" defined multiple times with different content
- U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2011). "Screening for osteoporosis: U.S. preventive services task force recommendation statement.". Ann Intern Med 154 (5): 356-64. DOI:10.1059/0003-4819-154-5-201103010-00307. PMID 21242341. Research Blogging.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid21242341" defined multiple times with different content
- (2010 Jan-Feb) "Management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: 2010 position statement of The North American Menopause Society.". Menopause 17 (1): 25-54; quiz 55-6. DOI:10.1097/gme.0b013e3181c617e6. PMID 20061894. Research Blogging.
- National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation;2008.
- Raisz LG (2005). "Pathogenesis of osteoporosis: concepts, conflicts, and prospects.". J Clin Invest 115 (12): 3318-25. DOI:10.1172/JCI27071. PMID 16322775. PMC PMC1297264. Research Blogging.
- Law MR, Hackshaw AK (October 1997). "A meta-analysis of cigarette smoking, bone mineral density and risk of hip fracture: recognition of a major effect". BMJ 315 (7112): 841–6. PMID 9353503. PMC 2127590.
- Chiodini I, Mascia ML, Muscarella S, et al (2007). "Subclinical hypercortisolism among outpatients referred for osteoporosis". Ann. Intern. Med. 147 (8): 541–8. PMID 17938392.
- Mackey DC, Lui LY, Cawthon PM, et al (2007). "High-trauma fractures and low bone mineral density in older women and men". JAMA 298 (20): 2381–8. DOI:10.1001/jama.298.20.2381. PMID 18042915. Research Blogging.
- Green AD, Colón-Emeric CS, Bastian L, Drake MT, Lyles KW (2004). "Does this woman have osteoporosis?". JAMA 292 (23): 2890–900. DOI:10.1001/jama.292.23.2890. PMID 15598921. Research Blogging.
- Shepherd AJ, Cass AR, Carlson CA, Ray L (2007). "Development and internal validation of the male osteoporosis risk estimation score". Ann Fam Med 5 (6): 540–6. DOI:10.1370/afm.753. PMID 18025492. Research Blogging. (Prediction rule in Table 4)
- WHO Scientific Group on the Prevention and Management of Osteoporosis (2000 : Geneva, Switzerland) (2003). Prevention and management of osteoporosis : report of a WHO scientific group (pdf). Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
- Raisz LG (July 2005). "Clinical practice. Screening for osteoporosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (2): 164–71. DOI:10.1056/NEJMcp042092. PMID 16014886. Research Blogging.
- Chiodini, Iacopo, Maria Lucia Mascia, Silvana Muscarella, Claudia Battista, Salvatore Minisola, Maura Arosio, et al. 2007. Subclinical Hypercortisolism among Outpatients Referred for Osteoporosis. Ann Intern Med 147, no. 8 (October 16): 541-548. http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/147/8/541 (accessed October 16, 2007).
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmidpending" defined multiple times with different content
- (2002) "Screening for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: recommendations and rationale". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (6): 526-8. PMID 12230355.
- Nelson HD, Haney EM, Dana T, Bougatsos C, Chou R (2010). "Screening for Osteoporosis: An Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.". Ann Intern Med. DOI:10.1059/0003-4819-153-2-201007200-00262. PMID 20621892. Research Blogging.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid20621892" defined multiple times with different content
- Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C (2012). "Derivation and validation of updated QFracture algorithm to predict risk of osteoporotic fracture in primary care in the United Kingdom: prospective open cohort study.". BMJ 344: e3427. DOI:10.1136/bmj.e3427. PMID 22619194. Research Blogging.
- Collins GS, Mallett S, Altman DG (2011). "Predicting risk of osteoporotic and hip fracture in the United Kingdom: prospective independent and external validation of QFractureScores.". BMJ 342: d3651. DOI:10.1136/bmj.d3651. PMID 21697214. PMC PMC3120281. Research Blogging.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid21697214" defined multiple times with different content
- Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C (2009). "Predicting risk of osteoporotic fracture in men and women in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QFractureScores.". BMJ 339: b4229. DOI:10.1136/bmj.b4229. PMID 19926696. PMC PMC2779855. Research Blogging.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid19926696" defined multiple times with different content
- Robbins J, Aragaki AK, Kooperberg C, et al (2007). "Factors associated with 5-year risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women". JAMA 298 (20): 2389–98. DOI:10.1001/jama.298.20.2389. PMID 18042916. Research Blogging.
Sensitivy and specificy in detecting abnormal bone density is in Table 5 Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid18042916" defined multiple times with different content
- Cadarette SM, Jaglal SB, Kreiger N, McIsaac WJ, Darlington GA, Tu JV (May 2000). "Development and validation of the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument to facilitate selection of women for bone densitometry". CMAJ 162 (9): 1289–94. PMID 10813010. PMC 1232411.
- Koh LK, Sedrine WB, Torralba TP, et al. (2001). "A simple tool to identify asian women at increased risk of osteoporosis". Osteoporos Int 12 (8): 699–705. PMID 11580084.
- Martínez-Aguilà D, Gómez-Vaquero C, Rozadilla A, Romera M, Narváez J, Nolla JM (2007). "Decision rules for selecting women for bone mineral density testing: application in postmenopausal women referred to a bone densitometry unit". J. Rheumatol. 34 (6): 1307-12. PMID 17552058.
- Cadarette SM, Jaglal SB, Murray TM, McIsaac WJ, Joseph L, Brown JP (July 2001). "Evaluation of decision rules for referring women for bone densitometry by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry". JAMA 286 (1): 57–63. PMID 11434827.
- Cummings SR, Nevitt MC, Browner WS, et al. (March 1995). "Risk factors for hip fracture in white women. Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group". N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (12): 767–73. PMID 7862179.
- Schousboe JT, Taylor BC, Fink HA, et al (August 2007). "Cost-effectiveness of bone densitometry followed by treatment of osteoporosis in older men". JAMA 298 (6): 629–37. DOI:10.1001/jama.298.6.629. PMID 17684185. Research Blogging.
- Qaseem A, Snow V, Shekelle P, Hopkins R, Forciea MA, Owens DK (May 2008). "Screening for osteoporosis in men: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians". Ann. Intern. Med. 148 (9): 680–4. PMID 18458281.
- Liu H, Paige NM, Goldzweig CL, et al (May 2008). "Screening for osteoporosis in men: a systematic review for an American College of Physicians guideline". Ann. Intern. Med. 148 (9): 685–701. PMID 18458282.
- Crandall, Carolyn J., Sydne J. Newberry, Allison Diamant, Yee-Wei Lim, Walid F. Gellad, Marika J. Booth, Aneesa Motala, and Paul G. Shekelle. 2014. “Comparative Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Treatments to Prevent FracturesAn Updated Systematic ReviewComparative Effectiveness of Pharmacologic Treatments to Prevent Fractures.” Annals of Internal Medicine 2014. DOI:10.7326/M14-0317.
- National Osteoporosis Foundation. Clinician's Guide to Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis. Washington, DC: National Osteoporosis Foundation;2008.
- Hodgson SF, Watts NB, Bilezikian JP, Clarke BL, Gray TK, Harris DW et al. (2003). "American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: 2001 edition, with selected updates for 2003.". Endocr Pract 9 (6): 544-64. PMID 14715483. AACE website
- Tosteson AN, Melton LJ, Dawson-Hughes B, et al. (April 2008). "Cost-effective osteoporosis treatment thresholds: the United States perspective". Osteoporos Int 19 (4): 437–47. DOI:10.1007/s00198-007-0550-6. PMID 18292976. Research Blogging.
Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; name "pmid18292976" defined multiple times with different content
- Maclean C, Newberry S, Maglione M, et al (2007). "Systematic Review: Comparative Effectiveness of Treatments to Prevent Fractures in Men and Women with Low Bone Density or Osteoporosis". Ann Intern Med. PMID 18087050.
- Lenchik L, Kiebzak GM, Blunt BA, International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Panel and Scientific Advisory Committee (2002). "What is the role of serial bone mineral density measurements in patient management?". J Clin Densitom 5 Suppl: S29-38. PMID 12464709.
- Bolland MJ, Avenell A, Baron JA, Grey A, MacLennan GS, Gamble GD et al. (2010). "Effect of calcium supplements on risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular events: meta-analysis.". BMJ 341: c3691. DOI:10.1136/bmj.c3691. PMID 20671013. PMC PMC2912459. Research Blogging.
- DIPART (Vitamin D Individual Patient Analysis of Randomized Trials) Group (2010). "Patient level pooled analysis of 68 500 patients from seven major vitamin D fracture trials in US and Europe.". BMJ 340: b5463. DOI:10.1136/bmj.b5463. PMID 20068257. Research Blogging.
- Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dawson-Hughes B, Staehelin HB, Orav JE, Stuck AE, Theiler R et al. (2009). "Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.". BMJ 339: b3692. DOI:10.1136/bmj.b3692. PMID 19797342. Research Blogging.
- National Osteoporosis Foundation. 2013 Clinician's guide to prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Available at http://nof.org/hcp/resources/913
- Lyles KW, Colón-Emeric CS, Magaziner JS, et al (2007). "Zoledronic Acid and Clinical Fractures and Mortality after Hip Fracture". N Engl J Med. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa074941. PMID 17878149. Research Blogging.
- Cummings SR, Black DM, Thompson DE, et al. (1998). "Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial". JAMA 280 (24): 2077–82. PMID 9875874.
- Black DM, Cummings SR, Karpf DB, et al. (December 1996). "Randomised trial of effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with existing vertebral fractures. Fracture Intervention Trial Research Group". Lancet 348 (9041): 1535–41. PMID 8950879.
- Black DM, Schwartz AV, Ensrud KE, et al (December 2006). "Effects of continuing or stopping alendronate after 5 years of treatment: the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX): a randomized trial". JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association 296 (24): 2927–38. DOI:10.1001/jama.296.24.2927. PMID 17190893. Research Blogging.
- Delmas PD (July 2005). "The use of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis". Current opinion in rheumatology 17 (4): 462–6. PMID 15956844.
- McClung MR, Lewiecki EM, Cohen SB, et al (2006). "Denosumab in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (8): 821–31. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa044459. PMID 16495394. Research Blogging.
- Canalis E, Giustina A, Bilezikian JP (2007). "Mechanisms of anabolic therapies for osteoporosis". N. Engl. J. Med. 357 (9): 905–16. DOI:10.1056/NEJMra067395. PMID 17761594. Research Blogging.
- O'Donnell S, Cranney A, Wells GA, Adachi JD, Reginster JY (2006). "Strontium ranelate for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD005326. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD005326.pub3. PMID 17054253. Research Blogging.
- Marshall D, Johnell O, Wedel H (May 1996). "Meta-analysis of how well measures of bone mineral density predict occurrence of osteoporotic fractures". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 312 (7041): 1254–9. PMID 8634613. PMC 2351094.
- Bell, Katy J L; Andrew Hayen, Petra Macaskill, Les Irwig, Jonathan C Craig, Kristine Ensrud, Douglas C Bauer (2009-06-23). "Value of routine monitoring of bone mineral density after starting bisphosphonate treatment: secondary analysis of trial data". BMJ 338 (jun23_2): b2266. DOI:10.1136/bmj.b2266. Retrieved on 2009-06-24. Research Blogging.
- Johansson H, Kanis JA, Oden A, Johnell O, McCloskey E (2009). "BMD, clinical risk factors and their combination for hip fracture prevention.". Osteoporos Int 20 (10): 1675-82. DOI:10.1007/s00198-009-0845-x. PMID 19291344. Research Blogging.
- Kanis JA, Johnell O, Oden A, Johansson H, McCloskey E (2008). "FRAX and the assessment of fracture probability in men and women from the UK.". Osteoporos Int 19 (4): 385-97. DOI:10.1007/s00198-007-0543-5. PMID 18292978. PMC PMC2267485. Research Blogging.
- Anonymous (2007). Chronic rheumatic conditions. World Health Organization.
- Murphy, Kate. Splits Form Over How to Address Bone Loss, The New York Times, 2009-09-08. Retrieved on 2009-10-12.
- Hippisley-Cox J,Coupland C. (2011) - authors response BMJ 2011
- Ensrud KE, Lui LY, Taylor BC, Schousboe JT, Donaldson MG, Fink HA et al. (2009). "A comparison of prediction models for fractures in older women: is more better?". Arch Intern Med 169 (22): 2087-94. DOI:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.404. PMID 20008691. Research Blogging.
- Gourlay ML, Fine JP, Preisser JS, May RC, Li C, Lui LY et al. (2012). "Bone-density testing interval and transition to osteoporosis in older women.". N Engl J Med 366 (3): 225-33. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1107142. PMID 22256806. PMC PMC3285114. Research Blogging. Review in: J Fam Pract. 2012 Sep;61(9):555-6 Review in: Evid Based Med. 2013 Feb;18(1):e7
- The National Coalition for Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases Briefed Congress on Action Plan for a National Vision for Bone Health.
- Burge R, Dawson-Hughes B, Solomon DH, Wong JB, King A, Tosteson A (2007). "Incidence and economic burden of osteoporosis-related fractures in the United States, 2005-2025.". J Bone Miner Res 22 (3): 465-75. DOI:10.1359/jbmr.061113. PMID 17144789. Research Blogging.
- Johnell O, Kanis JA (2006). "An estimate of the worldwide prevalence and disability associated with osteoporotic fractures.". Osteoporos Int 17 (12): 1726-33. DOI:10.1007/s00198-006-0172-4. PMID 16983459. Research Blogging.
- Cauley JA et al. (2008) Incidence of fractures compared to cardiovascular disease and breast cancer: The Women's Health Initiative observational study. Osteoporosis International. 8;19:1717-23.